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Jan. Das DFB-Team trifft in der Gruppe 1 der Liga A auf Frankreich und die Niederlande. Über die Nations League zur EM Refresh. EM – Gruppen, Gruppenphase, Teams bei Eurosport. Gruppen. Gruppe A; Gruppe B; Gruppe C; Gruppe D; Gruppe E; Gruppe F; Gruppe G; Gruppe H. ;. Gruppe A. Gruppenanalyse.
Originally the work was to have been for multi-channel electronic music with large orchestra, with metrically indeterminate parts for the orchestra.
Once having decided to divide the orchestra into three parts, each with its own conductor, Stockhausen gave up the electronic sounds and incorporated some of what had previously been thought of as electronic music into the orchestra.
The indeterminate tempos also proved impractical, and were dropped after a few experimental pages of score had been written out Kurtz , 79— The score is dedicated to Herbert Eimert , director at that time of the WDR electronic music studio Stockhausen , Gruppen was performed twice on the programme, with the world premiere of Pierre Boulez 's Third Piano Sonata , performed by the composer, in between Misch , n A large orchestra of players is divided into three orchestral units, each with its own conductor , which are deployed in a horseshoe shape to the left, front, and right of the audience.
The spatial separation was principally motivated by the compositional requirement of keeping simultaneously played yet musically separate passages distinct from one another Kurtz , 80 , but led to some orgiastic passages in which a single musical process passes from one orchestra to another.
The title refers to the work's construction in units, mainly composed in what Stockhausen terms "groups"—cohesive groupings of notes unified through one or more common characteristics dynamics, instrumental color, register, etc.
The various groups in a composition have various proportional features—various structures—but they are interrelated in that the properties of one group may only be understood by comparing them in degree of relationship with the other groups" Stockhausen a , This category is contrasted with the " punctual " style of early Darmstadt serialism , which nevertheless also occurs in Gruppen , along with a third category of "collective" or "statistical" swarms or crowds, too dense for the listener to be able to accurately distinguish individual notes or their order of succession Stockhausen c , — Consequently, the importance of individual notes is relatively low, so that sonority, density, speed, dynamics, and direction of movement become the main features for the listener Smalley , This is a symmetrical all-interval row , in which the first half consists of the intervals of a descending major third, rising perfect fourth, descending minor third, descending minor second, and ascending major second.
The second half consists of the retrograde of the first half, transposed by a tritone Misch , In other words, the row is "degenerate", in that the second hexachord is a retrograde of the first, transposed by six semitones.
However, Stockhausen does not exploit the specific twelve-tone compositional applications of such a row, which suggests that either Stockhausen was not interested in or did not know about them Harvey , 56— Because of the chord transformations that emerge between rehearsal numbers and it appears that Stockhausen was in fact aware of these properties, making it most likely that the relationship simply did not interest him compositionally Kohl , — Many of the conceptual bases of the work are explained in Stockhausen's famous article, " In this essay, Stockhausen developed a serial organizational principle at the center of which stood the concept of a twelve-step duration series possessing the same structural properties as the basic twelve-tone pitch series.
This became the basis for the entire process of serial organization of Gruppen Misch , 53— This duration series, however, is expressed not as single units which would correspond to single vibrations of a pitch but rather as metronomic tempos in sufficiently long stretches of time to enable conductors and musicians to change tempo with precision.
Some Einsatzkommandos started to use automatic weapons, with survivors being killed with a pistol shot. As word of the massacres got out, many Jews fled; in Ukraine, 70 to 90 per cent of the Jews ran away.
This was seen by the leader of Einsatzkommando VI as beneficial, as it would save the regime the costs of deporting the victims further east over the Urals.
The Nazis began to round their victims up into concentration camps and ghettos and rural districts were for the most part rendered Judenfrei free of Jews.
The Einsatzgruppen used public hangings as a terror tactic against the local population. An Einsatzgruppe B report, dated 9 October , described one such hanging.
Due to suspected partisan activity near Demidov, all male residents aged 15 to 55 were put in a camp to be screened. The screening produced seventeen people who were identified as "partisans" and "Communists".
Five members of the group were hanged while local residents were assembled to watch; the rest were shot. The largest mass shooting perpetrated by the Einsatzgruppen took place on 29 and 30 September at Babi Yar, a ravine northwest of Kiev , a city in Ukraine that had fallen to the Germans on 19 September.
Since word of massacres in other areas had not yet reached Kiev and the assembly point was near the train station, they assumed they were being deported.
People showed up at the rendezvous point in large numbers, laden with possessions and food for the journey. After being marched two miles north-west of the city centre, the victims encountered a barbed wire barrier and numerous Ukrainian police and German troops.
Thirty or forty people at a time were told to leave their possessions and were escorted through a narrow passageway lined with soldiers brandishing clubs.
Anyone who tried to escape was beaten. Soon the victims reached an open area, where they were forced to strip, and then were herded down into the ravine.
People were forced to lie down in rows on top of the bodies of other victims, and they were shot in the back of the head or the neck by members of the execution squads.
The murders continued for two days, claiming a total of 33, victims. Heidborn spent the next few days helping smooth out the "millions" of banknotes taken from the victims' possessions.
According to its own reports to Himmler, Einsatzgruppe A killed almost , people in the five months following the invasion: Upon entering Kaunas , Lithuania, on 25 June , the Einsatzgruppe released the criminals from the local jail and encouraged them to join the pogrom which was underway.
As Einsatzgruppe A advanced into Lithuania, it actively recruited local nationalists and antisemitic groups.
In July , members of the Baltaraisciai movement joined the massacres. Local officials, the Selbstschutz , and the Hilfspolizei Auxiliary Police played a key role in rounding up and massacring Jewish Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians.
Of the roughly 83, Jews who fell into German hands in Latvia, not more than survived; and of the more than 20, Western Jews sent into Latvia, only some lived through the deportation until liberation.
This was the highest percentage of eradication in all of Europe. In late , the Einsatzkommandos settled into headquarters in Kovno , Riga, and Tallinn.
Einsatzgruppe A grew less mobile and faced problems because of its small size. Such extensive and enthusiastic collaboration with the Einsatzgruppen has been attributed to several factors.
Since the Russian Revolution of , the Kresy Wschodnie and other borderlands had experienced a political culture of violence.
Historian Erich Haberer notes that many survived and made sense of the "totalitarian atomization" of society by seeking conformity with communism.
In November Himmler was dissatisfied with the pace of the exterminations in Latvia, as he intended to move Jews from Germany into the area.
Jeckeln selected a site about 10 kilometres 6. Jeckeln organised around 1, men, including members of the Arajs Kommando , 50 German SD men, and 50 Latvian guards, most of whom had already participated in mass killings of civilians.
These troops were supplemented by Latvians, including members of the Riga city police, battalion police, and ghetto guards. Around 1, able-bodied Jews would be spared execution so their slave labour could be exploited; a thousand men were relocated to a fenced-off area within the ghetto and women were temporarily housed in a prison and later moved to a separate nearby ghetto, where they were put to work mending uniforms.
Although Rumbula was on the rail line, Jeckeln decided that the victims should travel on foot from Riga to the execution ground. Trucks and buses were arranged to carry children and the elderly.
The first day of executions, 30 November , began with the perpetrators rousing and assembling the victims at 4: The victims were moved in columns of a thousand people toward the execution ground.
As they walked, some SS men went up and down the line, shooting people who could not keep up the pace or who tried to run away or rest.
Here the victims were split into groups of fifty and taken deeper into the forest, near the pits, where they were ordered to strip. The victims were driven into the prepared trenches, made to lie down, and shot in the head or the back of the neck by members of Jeckeln's bodyguard.
Around 13, Jews from Riga were killed at the pits that day, along with a thousand Jews from Berlin who had just arrived by train. On the second day of the operation, 8 December , the remaining 10, Jews of Riga were killed in the same way.
About a thousand were killed on the streets of the city or on the way to the site, bringing the total deaths for the two-day extermination to 25, people.
Einsatzgruppe B, C , and D did not immediately follow Einsatzgruppe A's example in systematically killing all Jews in their areas.
The Einsatzgruppe commanders, with the exception of Einsatzgruppe A's Stahlecker, were of the opinion by the fall of that it was impossible to kill the entire Jewish population of the Soviet Union in one sweep, and thought the killings should stop.
Einsatzgruppe A had already murdered almost all Jews in its area, so it shifted its operations into Belarus to assist Einsatzgruppe B.
In Dnepropetrovsk in February , Einsatzgruppe D reduced the city's Jewish population from 30, to over the course of four days.
Haberer wrote that, as in the Baltic states, the Germans could not have killed so many Jews so quickly without local help.
He points out that the ratio of Order Police to auxiliaries was 1 to 10 in both Ukraine and Belarus. In rural areas the proportion was 1 to This meant that most Ukrainian and Belarusian Jews were killed by fellow Ukrainians and Belarusians commanded by German officers rather than by Germans.
The second wave of exterminations in the Soviet Union met with armed resistance in some areas, though the chance of success was poor.
Weapons were typically primitive or home-made. Communications were impossible between ghettos in various cities, so there was no way to create a unified strategy.
Few in the ghetto leadership supported resistance for fear of reprisals on the ghetto residents. Mass break-outs were sometimes attempted, though survival in the forest was nearly impossible due to the lack of food and the fact that escapees were often tracked down and killed.
After a time, Himmler found that the killing methods used by the Einsatzgruppen were inefficient: Some of the perpetrators suffered physical and mental health problems, and many turned to drink.
The historian Christian Ingrao notes an attempt was made to make the shootings a collective act without individual responsibility.
Framing the shootings in this way was not psychologically sufficient for every perpetrator to feel absolved of guilt.
Commander of Einsatzgruppe D, SS- Gruppenführer Otto Ohlendorf , particularly noted this propensity towards excess, and ordered that any man who was too eager to participate or too brutal should not perform any further executions.
During a visit to Minsk in August , Himmler witnessed an Einsatzgruppen mass execution first-hand and concluded that shooting Jews was too stressful for his men.
Prisoners or auxiliaries were often assigned to do this task so as to spare the SS men the trauma. Plans for the total eradication of the Jewish population of Europe—eleven million people—were formalised at the Wannsee Conference , held on 20 January Some would be worked to death , and the rest would be killed in the implementation of the Final Solution of the Jewish question German: Die Endlösung der Judenfrage.
After the fall of Stalingrad in February , Himmler realised that Germany would likely lose the war, and ordered the formation of a special task force, Sonderkommando , under SS- Standartenführer Paul Blobel.
The unit's assignment was to visit mass graves all along the Eastern Front to exhume bodies and burn them in an attempt to cover up the genocide.
The task remained unfinished at the end of the war, and many mass graves remain unmarked and unexcavated. By the Red Army had begun to push the German forces out of Eastern Europe, and the Einsatzgruppen retreated alongside the Wehrmacht.
By late , most Einsatzgruppen personnel had been folded into Waffen-SS combat units or transferred to permanent death camps. Hilberg estimates that between and the Einsatzgruppen and related agencies killed more than two million people, including 1.
Einsatzgruppe Egypt , standing by in Athens , was prepared to go to Palestine once German forces arrived there. Its members planned to enlist collaborators from the local population to perform the killings under German leadership.
Had Operation Sea Lion , the German plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom been launched, six Einsatzgruppen were scheduled to follow the invasion force into Britain.
They were provided with a list called die Sonderfahndungsliste, G. B" , known as The Black Book after the war, of 2, people to be immediately imprisoned by the Gestapo.
The list included Churchill, members of the cabinet, prominent journalists and authors, and members of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile.
The Einsatzgruppen kept official records of many of their massacres and provided detailed reports to their superiors. Jäger's report provides an almost daily running total of the liquidations of , people, the vast majority of them Jews.
There are no more Jews in Lithuania, apart from working Jews and their families. Only 1, of the victims were non-Jewish.
Jäger escaped capture by the Allies when the war ended. He lived in Heidelberg under his own name until his report was discovered in March The killings took place with the knowledge and support of the German Army in the east.
Now known as the Severity Order , it read in part:. The most important objective of this campaign against the Jewish-Bolshevik system is the complete destruction of its sources of power and the extermination of the Asiatic influence in European civilization In this eastern theatre, the soldier is not only a man fighting in accordance with the rules of the art of war, but also the ruthless standard bearer of a national conception For this reason the soldier must learn fully to appreciate the necessity for the severe but just retribution that must be meted out to the subhuman species of Jewry.
He sent out a circular to the generals under his command urging them to release their own versions and to impress upon their troops the need to exterminate the Jews.
Beyond this trivial complaint, the Army and the Einsatzgruppen worked closely and effectively. On 6 July Einsatzkommando 4b of Einsatzgruppe C reported that "Armed forces surprisingly welcome hostility against the Jews".
Officers in the field were well aware of the killing operations being conducted by the Einsatzgruppen. He states that those German generals who claimed that the Einsatzgruppen were a necessary anti-partisan response were lying, and maintained that the slaughter of about 2.
The men were charged with crimes against humanity , war crimes , and membership in the SS which had been declared a criminal organization. Fourteen death sentences and two life sentences were among the judgments; only four executions were carried out, on 7 June ; the rest were reduced to lesser sentences.
Several Einsatzgruppen leaders, including Ohlendorf, claimed at the trial to have received an order before Operation Barbarossa requiring them to murder all Soviet Jews.
However, if it could be established that the Einsatzgruppen had committed mass murder without orders, then they could have been convicted as perpetrators of mass murder, and hence could have received stiffer sentences, including capital punishment.
Streim postulated that the existence of an early comprehensive order was a fabrication created for use in Ohlendorf's defence.
This theory is now widely accepted by historians. Leaders were given briefings about the need to be "severe" and "firm"; all Jews were to be viewed as potential enemies that had to be dealt with ruthlessly.
Most of the perpetrators of Nazi war crimes were never charged, and returned unremarked to civilian life.
Funding for trials was inadequate, and the governments of Austria and Germany became less interested in obtaining convictions for wartime events, preferring to forget the Nazi past.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Einsatz Gruppen. Nazi paramilitary death squads, part of the SS. The Einsatzgruppen operated under the administration of the Schutzstaffel SS.
Heinrich Himmler , Reichsführer-SS. Intelligenzaktion and Operation Tannenberg. Map of the Einsatzgruppen operations behind the German-Soviet frontier with the location of the first shooting of Jewish men, women and children, 30 July War crimes of the Wehrmacht.
Einsatzgruppe ; Official full name: Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD. Browning, Christopher ; Matthäus, Jürgen The Origins of the Final Solution: Comprehensive History of the Holocaust.
University of Nebraska Press. Caron, Jean-Christophe 22 December Auf der Jagd nach dem Schatz des "Wüstenfuchses " ".
Spiegel Online in German: Retrieved 9 September Das Amt und die Vergangenheit: Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad.
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