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Gordon then made a rapprochement with Li and visited him in order to arrange for further operations. The "Ever-Victorious Army" resumed its high tempo advance, leading to the Battle of Changzhou , and culminating in the capture of Changzhou Fu , the principal military base of the Taipings in the region.

Gordon wrote in his diary: The wound was only slight and Gordon was soon back in action, fighting his last battle at Chang-chou in May The traders of Shanghai offered Gordon huge sums of money to thank him for his work commanding the Ever Victorious Army.

Gordon declined all honours of financial gain, writing: I want no further satisfaction than this". But at the time people saw a brave man who acted with humanity in an otherwise ghastly conflict, standing out from the other mercenaries, adventurers and cut-throats in wanting almost nothing for himself".

In a leader in August , The Times wrote about Gordon: Gordon returned to Britain and commanded the Royal Engineers' efforts around Gravesend , Kent to erect forts for the defence of the River Thames.

After he arrived in Britain, Gordon announced to the press that he "did not want to board the tram of the world" and asked to be left alone.

The council subsequently acquired the gardens of his official residence, Fort House now a museum , for the town. When the Duke of Cambridge, the Army's commander, visited one of the forts under construction and praised Gordon for his work, he received the reply: During his time at Gravesend, Gordon was much involved in charity work, trying to ensure that homeless boys he found begging on the street did not go hungry while attempting to find them homes and jobs.

Goodness become to me, through Gordon, the most desirable of ideas We were under the spell of Gordon's personality.

We lived in the magic of his mystery-enchanted". Gordon's charitable work for the boys of Gravesend led to later accusations in the 20th century that he was a homosexual.

It is possible that he had sexual feelings for these urchins, but there is no evidence that he ever acted upon them. We can only speculate that his increasing religious devotion may have been an outward manifestation of an internal struggle against sexual temptation.

Gordon never married and is not known to have had a sexual or romantic relationship with anyone, claiming that his Army service and frequent travels to dangerous places made it impossible for him to marry as he was a "dead man walking" who could only hurt a potential wife as it was inevitable that he would die in battle.

What this almost certainly meant was that Gordon had unresolved homosexual inclinations which, like Kitchener, but unlike Rhodes, he kept savagely repressed.

The repression of Gordon's sexual instincts helped to release a flood of celibate energy which drove him into weird beliefs, eccentric activities, and a sometimes misplaced confidence in his own judgement.

The American historian Byron Farwell in his book Eminent Victorian Soldiers strongly implied that Gordon was gay, for instance writing of Gordon's "unwholesome" interest in the boys he took in to live with him at the Fort House and his fondness for the company of "handsome" young men.

Gordon often said that he wished he had been born a eunuch, which would suggest that he wanted to annihilate all of his sexual desires, indeed his sexuality altogether.

Faught maintained that Gordon was a heterosexual whose Christian beliefs led him to maintain his virginity right up to his death as he believed that sexual intercourse was incompatible with his faith.

Peter Hammond denied that Gordon was a homosexual, citing the numerous statements made by Gordon condemning homosexuality as an abomination, charging that the claim that Gordon was gay was a theory with no foundations in fact.

In October , he was appointed British representative on the international commission to maintain the navigation of the mouth of the River Danube , with headquarters at Galatz.

Gordon was bored with the work of the Danube commission, and spent as much time as possible exploring the Romanian countryside whose beauty enchanted Gordon when he was not making visits to Bucharest to meet up with his old friend Romolo Gessi who was living there at the time.

During a visit to Bulgaria, Gordon and Gessi become involved in an incident when a Bulgarian couple told them that their year-old daughter had been abducted into the harem of an Ottoman pasha , and asked them to free their daughter.

Gordon was promoted to colonel on 16 February The Egyptian Prime Minister opened negotiations for Gordon to serve under the Ottoman Khedive , Isma'il Pasha , who was popularly called "Isma'il the Magnificent" on the account of his lavish spending.

S dollars in today's money just on the party to celebrate the opening of the Suez Canal, in what was described as the party of the century.

After meeting Gordon in , the Khedive Isma'il had said: He doesn't want money! The French-educated Isma'il Pasha greatly admired Europe as the model for excellence in everything, being an especially passionate Italophile and Francophile , saying at the beginning of his reign: The Khedive's great dream was to make Egypt culturally a part of Europe, and he spent huge sums of money attempting to modernise and Westernise Egypt, in the process going very deeply into debt.

At the beginning of his reign in , Egypt's debt had been 3 million Egyptian pounds. When Isma'il's reign ended in , Egypt's debt had risen to 93 million pounds.

Typical of the men that Khedive Isma'il Pasha hired was Valentine Baker , a British Army officer dishonorably discharged after being convicted of raping a young woman he been asked to chaperon.

After Baker's release from prison, Isma'il hired him to work in the Sudan. The Egyptian authorities had been extending their control southwards since the s.

Right up to , Egypt was officially a vilayet province of the Ottoman Empire , but after Mohammed Ali become the vali governor of Egypt in , Egypt was a de facto independent state where the authority of the Ottoman Sultan was more nominal than real.

Baker met with great difficulties and managed little beyond establishing a few posts along the Nile. The Khedive asked for Gordon to succeed Baker as the governor of Equatoria province that comprised much of what is today South Sudan and northern Uganda.

In Khartoum Gordon attended a dinner with the Governor-General, Ismail Aiyub Pasha, entertained with barely dressed belly dancers whom one of Gordon's officers drunkenly attempted to have sex with, leading to a disgusted Gordon walking out, saying he was shocked that Aiyub allowed these things to happen in his palace.

From Khartoum, he proceeded up the White Nile to Gondokoro. During his time in Sudan , Gordon was much involved in attempting to suppress the slave trade while struggling against a corrupt and inefficient Egyptian bureaucracy that had no interest in suppressing the slave trade.

Gordon, despite his position as an official in the Ottoman Empire, found the Ottoman-Egyptian system of rule inherently oppressive and cruel, coming into increasing conflict with the very system he was supposed to uphold, later stating about his time in the Sudan: Gordon established a close rapport with the African peoples of Equatoria such as the Nuer and Dinka , who had long suffered from the activity of Arab slave traders, and who naturally supported Gordon's efforts to stamp out the slave trade.

The bashi-bazouks were extremely susceptible to corruption and were notorious for their brutality, especially to non-Muslims.

Gordon remained in the Equatoria province until October Gordon quickly learned that before he could establish stations to crush the slave trade he would have to first explore the area to find the best places for building them.

Gordon had succeeded in establishing a line of way stations from the Sobat confluence on the White Nile to the frontier of Uganda , where he proposed to open a route from Mombasa.

In he built the station at Dufile on the Albert Nile to reassemble steamers carried there past rapids for the exploration of Lake Albert.

I am nearly dead". Besides acting as an administrator and explorer, Gordon had to act as a diplomat, dealing carefully with Muteesa I , the kabaka king of the Buganda who ruled most of what is today southern Uganda, a man who did not welcome the Egyptian expansionism into the Great Lakes region.

Emin Pasha to negotiate a treaty whereas in exchange for allowing the Egyptians to leave the Buganda, the independence of the kingdom was recognised.

Moreover, considerable progress was made in the suppression of the slave trade. During this period Gordon grew close to the Anti-Slavery Society , an evangelical Christian group based in London dedicated to ending slavery all over the world, and who regularly celebrated Gordon's efforts to end slavery in the Sudan.

Gordon had come into conflict with the Egyptian governor of Khartoum and Sudan over his efforts to ban slavery. The clash led to Gordon informing the Khedive that he did not wish to return to the Sudan, and he left for London.

During his time in London, Gordon was approached by Sir William Mackinnon , an enterprising Scots ship owner who had gone into partnership with King Leopold II of the Belgians with the aim of creating a chartered company that would conquer central Africa, and wished to employ Gordon as their agent in Africa.

Gordon accepted their offer, believing rather naively in Leopold's and Mackinnon's assurances their plans were purely philanthropic and they had no interest in exploiting Africans for profit.

He thereafter received the honorific rank and title of a pasha in the Ottoman aristocracy. As governor, Gordon faced a variety of challenges.

Besides working to end slavery, Gordon carried out a series of reforms such as abolishing torture and public floggings where those opposed to the Egyptian state were flogged with a whip known as the kourbash made of buffalo hide.

Let them take an idea into their heads and nothing will take it out. I have a splendid camel-none like it; it flies along and quite astonishes the Arabs".

These aims eluded him. Gordon himself was honest and incorruptible, but he was almost alone in possessing these qualities, and the venal and corrupt Egyptian bureaucrats usually ignored his orders when they conflicted with the chance to make money.

This man's activity with the scientific knowledge which he possesses is doubtless able to achieve much, but unfortunately no one backs him up and his orders are badly carried out or altered in such a way as to render them without effect.

All the Europeans, with some rare exceptions, whom he has honoured with his confidence have cheated him.

Reflecting these realities, Gordon had to undertake much of the administrative work himself, travelling ceaselessly and constantly all over the Sudan via camel in attempts to make the bureaucracy actually obey his orders.

Something that occurred when he was present, but stopped as soon as he left. As one observer noted that whenever he left and entered the Governor's Palace in Khartoum: E's [His Excellency] arrival with an indescribable uproar".

During the s, European initiatives against the Arab slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan , precipitating increasing unrest. Relations between Egypt and Abyssinia later renamed Ethiopia had become strained due to a dispute over the district of Bogos, and war broke out in An Egyptian expedition was completely defeated near Gundet.

A second and larger expedition under Prince Hassan was sent the following year and was routed at Gura. Matters then remained quiet until March , when Gordon proceeded to Massawa , hoping to make peace with the Abyssinians.

He went up to Bogos and wrote to the king proposing terms. He received no reply as the king had gone southwards to fight with the Shoa.

Gordon, seeing that the Abyssinian difficulty could wait, proceeded to Khartoum. In , Egypt went bankrupt. A group of European financial commissioners led by Evelyn Baring took charge of the Egyptian finances in an attempt to pay off the European banks who had lent so much money to Egypt.

With Egypt bankrupt, the money to carry out the reforms Gordon wanted was not there. Gordon travelled north to Cairo to meet with Baring and suggest the solution that Egypt suspend its interest payments for several years to allow Isma'il to pay the arrears owned to his soldiers and civil servants, arguing that once the Egyptian government was stabilised, then Egypt could start paying its debts without fear of causing a revolution.

We had a few words together When oil mixes with water, we will mix together". Slavery was the basis of the Sudanese economy, and Gordon's attempts to end the slave trade meant taking on very powerful vested interests, most notably Rahama Zobeir , known as the "King of the Slavers" as he was the richest and most powerful of all the slave traders in the entire Sudan.

An insurrection had broken out in Darfur province led by associates of Zobeir and Gordon went to deal with it. The insurgents were numerous, and he saw that diplomacy had a better chance of success.

On 2 September , Gordon clad in the full gold-braided ceremonial blue uniform of the Governor-General of the Sudan and wearing the tarboush the type of fez reserved for a pasha , accompanied by an interpreter and a few bashi-bazouks , rode unannounced into the enemy camp to discuss the situation.

Gordon carried no weapons except for his rattan cane through the bashi-bazouks were armed with rifles and swords , but Gordon showed utterly no fear while his interpreter and the bashi-bazouks were visibly nervous as the rebels numbered about 3, A tense stand-off ensued, and though the rebels could have easily killed Gordon and his party, as Gordon wrote in a letter to his sister that the rebels were all " Gordon was summoned to Cairo, and arrived in March to be appointed president of a commission.

Gordon returned south and proceeded to Harrar , south of Abyssinia, and, finding the administration in poor standing, dismissed the governor.

In , Gordon fired the governor of Equatoria for corruption and replaced him with his former chief medical officer from his time in Equatoria, Dr.

Emin Pasha , who had earned Gordon's respect. His subordinate, Gessi Pasha , fought with great success in the Bahr-el-Ghazal district in putting an end to the revolt there.

In July , Suleiman Zobeir had rebelled again, leading Gordon and his close friend Gessi to take to the field. In March , Gessi had inflicted a sharp defeat on Zobeir even before Gordon had joined him to pursue their old enemy.

Gordon then tried another peace mission to Abyssinia. The matter ended with Gordon's imprisonment and transfer to Massawa. Thence he returned to Cairo and resigned his Sudan appointment.

He was exhausted by years of incessant work. Gordon had gone to the Sudan with high hopes that via his iron will and Christian faith he would defeat the Ottoman-Egyptian system of rule, that he would act as a reformer who would change the system from within to make what was unjust, just, and that he would make things better for the ordinary people of the Sudan.

Instead, the Ottoman-Egyptian system had defeated him with almost all of Gordon's reforms having failed owing to the venality of the bureaucracy who shared absolutely none of Gordon's moral outrage at slavery and injustice, and Gordon's dreams of making things better for the ordinary people were dissolved in the face of greed and self-interest of others; the system remained the same creaking slow, utterly corrupt and oppressive apparatus trampling down ordinary people that it had always been.

At the end of his Governor-Generalship of the Sudan, Gordon had to admit that he been a failure, an experience of defeat that so shattered him that he had a nervous breakdown.

In March , he recovered for a couple of weeks in the Hotel du Faucon in Lausanne , 3 Rue St Pierre, famous for its views on Lake Geneva and because several celebrities had stayed there, such as Giuseppe Garibaldi , one of Gordon's heroes, [] and possibly one of the reasons Gordon had chosen this hotel.

In the hotel's restaurant, now a pub called Happy Days, he met another guest from Britain, the reverend R. Barnes, vicar of Heavitree near Exeter , who became a good friend.

A Sketch , which begins with the meeting at the hotel in Lausanne. The Reverend Reginald Barnes, who knew him well, describes him as "of the middle height, very strongly built.

The intensely religious Gordon had been born into the Church of England, but he never quite trusted the Anglican Church, instead preferring his own personal brand of Protestantism.

Ever since the realisation of the sacrament, I have been turned upside down". Gordon believed in reincarnation.

In , he wrote in a letter: I have little doubt of our having pre-existed; and that also in the time of our pre-existence we were actively employed. So, therefore, I believe in our active employment in a future life, and I like the thought.

Gordon believed in both predestination - writing that "I believe that not a worm is picked up by a bird without the direct intervention of God" - and free will with humans choosing their own fate, writing "I cannot and do not pretend to reconcile the two".

V Deo volente -Latin for "God willing" i. Leopold tried very hard to convince Gordon to enter his service, not least because Gordon was known to be modest in his salary demands, unlike Leopold's current agent in the Congo, Henry Morton Stanley , who received a monthly salary of , Belgian francs.

In May, the Marquess of Ripon , who had been given the post of Governor-General of India , asked Gordon to go with him as private secretary. Gordon accepted the offer, but shortly after arriving in India, he resigned.

In the words of the American historian Immanuel C. Hsu , Gordon was a "man of action" unsuitable for a bureaucratic job.

Hardly had Gordon resigned when he was invited to Beijing by Sir Robert Hart , inspector-general of customs in China, saying his services were urgently needed in China as Russia and China were on the verge of war.

Gordon was nostalgic for China, and knowing of the Sino-Russian crisis, he saw a chance to do something significant.

An exchange of telegrams ensued between the War Office in London and Gordon in Bombay about just what exactly he was planning on doing in China, and when Gordon replied that he would find out when he got there, Gordon was ordered to stay.

After meeting his old friend, Gordon assured Li that if Russia should attack he would resign his commission in the British Army to take up a commission in the Chinese Army, an action that if taken risked prosecution under the Foreign Enlistments Act.

Gordon proceeded to Beijing and used all his influence to ensure peace. Gordon clashed repeatedly with Prince Chun , the leader of the war party in Beijing who rejected Gordon's advice to seek a compromise solution as Gordon warned that the powerful Russian naval squadron in the Yellow Sea would allow the Russians to land at Tianjin and advance on Beijing.

Gordon further advised the Qing court that it was unwise for the Manchu elite to live apart from and treat the Han Chinese majority as something less than human, warning that this not only weakened China in the present, but would cause a revolution in the future.

Whether religion or vanity, or the softening of the brain-I don't know, but he seems to be alternatively arrogant and slavish, vain and humble, in his senses and out of them.

It's a great pity! Gordon was ordered home by London as the Foreign Office was not comfortable with the idea of him commanding the Chinese Army against Russia if war should break out, believing that this would cause an Anglo-Russian war and Gordon was told that he would be dishonorably discharged if he remained in China.

Gordon returned to Britain and rented a flat on 8 Victoria Grove in London. In October Gordon paid a two-week visit to Ireland , landing at Cork and travelling over much of the island.

Gordon compared his plans for rural reform in Ireland to ending slavery in the British Empire in , and ended his letter with the claim that if this was done, the unity of the United Kingdom would be preserved as the Irish would appreciate this great act of justice and the Irish independence movement would cease to exist as "they would have nothing more to seek from agitation".

He remained in Mauritius until March The American historian John Semple Galbraith described Gordon as suffering from "utter boredom" during his time in the Mauritius.

In a memo to London, Gordon warned against over-reliance on the Suez Canal, where the Russians could easily sink one ship to block the entire canal, thus leading Gordon to advise upon improving the Cape route to India with Britain developing a series of bases in Africa and in the Indian Ocean.

Promoted to major-general on 23 March , [] Gordon was sent to the Cape to aid in settling affairs in Basutoland , but he returned to the United Kingdom after only a few months.

Rhodes later recalled he and Gordon got along "capitally together". After arriving in Basutoland, Gordon met with Prince Masupha to persuade him to lay down his arms and to accept his father's protectorate plan rather than have his kingdom annexed to the Orange Free State.

Being unemployed, Gordon decided to go to Palestine which at the time was part of the Ottoman vilayet of Syria , [] a region he had long desired to visit, where he would remain for a year — During his "career break" in the Holy Land, the very religious Gordon sought to explore his faith and biblical sites.

The site lies north of the traditional site at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and is now known as "the Garden Tomb ," or sometimes as "Gordon's Calvary.

The Mahdi is a messianic figure in Islam which tradition holds will appear at the dawn of every new Islamic century to strike down the enemies of Islam.

The year was the Islamic year , and to mark the coming of the new century, Ahmed announced that he was the Mahdi, and proclaimed a jihad against the Egyptian state.

The long exploitation of the Sudan by Egypt led many Sudanese to rally to the Mahdi's black banner as he promised to expel the Egyptians, whom Ahmed denounced as apostates and he announced he would establish an Islamic fundamentalist state marking a return to the "pure Islam" said to have been practised in the days of the Prophet Mohamed in Arabia.

Additionally, Baring's policy of raising taxes to pay off the debts Isma'il had run up sparked much resentment in both Egypt and the Sudan.

From September onwards, Egypt was a de facto British protectorate effectively ruled by Baring, through in theory Egypt remained an Ottoman province with a very wide degree of autonomy until With Egypt under British rule, the British also inherited the problems of Egypt's colony, the Sudan, which the Egyptians were losing control of to the Mahdi.

The Egyptian forces in the Sudan were insufficient to cope with the rebels, and the northern government was occupied in the suppression of the Urabi Revolt.

By September , the Egyptian position in the Sudan had grown perilous. On 3—5 November , the Ansar whom the British called "Dervishes" , as the Mahdi's followers were known, had destroyed an Egyptian Army of 8, under Colonel Hicks at El Obeid, with only about Egyptians surviving and Hicks being one of the slain.

In both cases naval power was the key factor as gunboats in the Red Sea and the Nile provided a degree of firepower with which the Ansar could not cope.

The only other place to hold out for a time was mostly Christian Equatoria under Emin Pasha. Following the destruction of Hicks's army, the Liberal Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone decided that the Sudan was not worth the trouble it would take to hang onto, and as such, the Sudan was to be abandoned to the Mahdi.

In December , the British government ordered Egypt to abandon the Sudan, but that was difficult to carry out, as it involved the withdrawal of thousands of Egyptian soldiers, civilian employees, and their families.

At the beginning of , Gordon had no interest in the Sudan and had just been hired to work as an officer with the newly established Congo Free State.

The danger arises from the influence which the spectacle of a conquering Mahometan [Muslim] Power established close to your frontiers will exercise upon the population which you govern.

In all the cities of Egypt it will be felt that what the Mahdi has done they may do; and, as he has driven out the intruder, they may do the same.

Stead published his interview on 9 January on the front page of the Pall Mall Gazette alongside the leader editorial he had written entitled "Chinese Gordon for the Sudan".

As to who tipped him off that the general would be staying here for just a couple of nights, we can only speculate". Stead's interview caused a media sensation and led to a popular clamour for Gordon to be sent to the Sudan.

It is often suggested that that campaign by William Randolph Hearst's paper that led to the US invasion of Cuba in was the world's first episode of this kind, but the British press deserves these dubious laurels for its actions a full fourteen years earlier".

In , the Liberals had won the general election on a platform of imperial retrenchment, and Gladstone had put his principles into practice by withdrawing from the Transvaal and Afghanistan in There was an imperialist "ultra" faction in the War Office led by Wolseley that felt that the Liberal government were too inclined to withdraw from various places all over the globe at the first sign of trouble, and who were determined to sabotage the withdrawal from the Sudan.

With public opinion demanding that Gordon be sent to the Sudan, on 16 January the Gladstone government decided to send him there, albeit with the very limited mandate to report on the situation and advise on the best means of carrying out the evacuation.

Gladstone felt that this was a deft political move. Public opinion would be satisfied with "Chinese Gordon" going to the Sudan, but at the same time, Gordon was given such a limited mandate that the evacuation would proceed as planned.

The Cabinet felt very uncomfortable with the appointment as they had been pressured by the press to send a man who was opposed to their Sudan policy to take command in the Sudan with the Foreign Secretary Lord Grenville wondering if they had just committed a "gigantic folly".

The British government asked Gordon to proceed to Khartoum to report on the best method of carrying out the evacuation. Gordon started for Cairo in January , accompanied by Lt.

At Cairo, he received further instructions from Sir Evelyn Baring , and was appointed governor-general with executive powers by the Khedive Tewfik Pasha , who also gave Gordon a firman edict ordering him to establish a government in the Sudan, which Gordon was later to use as a reason for staying in Khartoum.

Ye are men, not women. Urban wrote that Gordon's "most stupid mistake" occurred when he revealed his secret orders at a meeting of tribal leaders on 12 February at Berber, explaining that the Egyptians were pulling out, leading to almost all of the Arab tribes of northern Sudan declaring their loyalty to the Mahdi.

The Mahdi contemptuously rejected Gordon's offer and sent back a letter demanding Gordon convert to Islam. The Mahdi ended his letter with the remark: I am the successor of God's Prophet and I have no need of any sultanate of Kordofan or anywhere else!

Gordon's abrupt mood swings and contradictory advice confirmed the Cabinet's view of him as mercurial and unstable.

His moods were capricious and uncertain, his passions violent, his impulses sudden and inconsistent. The mortal enemy of the morning had become a trusted ally by night".

The novelist John Buchan wrote Gordon was so "unlike other men that he readily acquired a spiritual ascendency over all who knew him well and many who did not After arriving in Khartoum, Gordon announced that on the grounds of honour, he would not evacuate Khartoum, but rather, would hold the city against the Mahdi.

Gordon commenced the task of sending the women, children, the sick and wounded to Egypt. About 2, people had been removed before the Mahdi's forces closed in on Khartoum.

Gordon hoped to have the influential local leader Sebehr Rahma appointed to take control of Sudan, but the British government refused to support a former slaver.

Powers was delighted that the charismatic Gordon had no anti-Catholic prejudices and treated him as an equal. Gordon made all of his personal dispatches to London public there was no Official Secrets Act at the time in attempts to win public opinion over to his policy, writing on one dispatch: The advance of the rebels against Khartoum was combined with a revolt in the eastern Sudan.

Colonel Valentine Baker led an Egyptian force out of Suakin and was badly defeated by 1, Haddendowa warriors who declared their loyalty to the Mahdi under Osman Digna at Al-Teb with 2, Egyptian soldiers and 96 officers killed.

At Tamai on 13 March , Graham was attacked by the Haddendowa whom the British disparagingly called "Fuzzy Wuzzies" whom he defeated, but in the course of the battle, the Haddendowa broke the Black Watch square, an action later celebrated in the Kipling poem " Fuzzy-Wuzzy ".

The ferocity of the Haddendowa attacks astonished the British, and Graham argued that he needed more troops if he were to advance deeper into the Sudan while one newspaper correspondent reported that the average British soldiers did not understand why they were in the Sudan killing "such brave fellows" for "the sake of the wretched Egyptians".

The garrison at Berber surrendered in May, and Khartoum was completely isolated. Gordon decided to stay and hold Khartoum despite the orders of the Gladstone government to merely report about the best means of supervising the evacuation of the Sudan.

We cannot bring ourselves to believe that we are to be abandoned". I fear I have not even tried to play battledore and shuttlecock with them.

I know if I was chief I would never employ myself for I am incorrigible". Because of public opinion, the government dared not sack Gordon, but the Cabinet was extremely angry about Gordon's insubordination, with many privately saying if Gordon wanted to defy orders by holding Khartoum, then he only deserved what he was going to get.

Of course it is not an impossible undertaking, but it is melancholy to think of the waste of lives and the treasure which it must involve".

Gordon had a strong death wish, and clearly wanted to die fighting at Khartoum, writing in a letter to his sister: Earth's joys grow very dim, its glories have faded".

The Mahdi and his followers had been fighting a jihad since and looked forward to taking on the famous General Gordon as a chance to win glory for Allah.

Gordon energetically organised the defence of Khartoum right from the moment he arrived in Khartoum, using his training as a military engineer to turn the city into a fortress.

The Shaggyeh one of the few Arab tribes who did not rally to the Mahdi drove Gordon to distraction, with Gordon writing in his diary about them: How I look forward to their disbandment".

A siege of Khartoum by the Mahdist forces commanded by the Mahdi himself started on 18 March Initially, the siege of Khartoum was more in nature a blockade rather than a true siege as the Mahdi's forces lacked the strength to wage a proper siege, for example only cutting the telegraphy lines in April Gordon's last telegrams were clearly meant for the British public with one message addressed to Baring reading: I shall hold on here as long as I can, and if I can suppress the rebellion, I shall do so.

If I cannot, I shall retire to the Equator and leave you with the indelible disgrace of abandoning the garrisons".

Gladstone was opposed to hanging onto the Sudan, saying in a speech in the House of Commons that sending a relief force to Khartoum would be "a war of conquest against a people struggling to be free.

Yes, these are people struggling to be free and rightly struggling to be free". Gordon had a low opinion of his enemy, writing that the Ansar besieging him were "some determined men and some 2, rag-tag Arabs".

It wasn't exactly fair to the Egyptian garrisons he had been sent to evacuate; they had no death wish". During this time, Gordon, when he was not organising the besieged garrison with incredible energy, spent his time writing a somewhat rambling diary containing his reflections on the siege, life, fate and his own intense, idiosyncratic version of Protestantism.

To keep up morale, Gordon had a military band perform concerts in the central plaza every Friday and Sunday evenings for free, and cast his own decorations for his men.

It was not until August that the government decided to take steps to relieve Gordon, with the British relief force, called the Nile Expedition , or, more popularly, the Khartoum Relief Expedition or Gordon Relief Expedition a title that Gordon strongly deprecated.

Wolseley had earlier served in Canada where he had commanded the Red River expedition of , during which time he gained considerable respect for the skills of French-Canadian voyageurs , and now insisted he could not travel up the Nile without the voyageurs to assist his men as river pilots and boatmen.

It took considerable time to hire the voyageurs in Canada and bring them to Egypt, which delayed the expedition. On 4 September , Gordon's fortunes took a turn for the worse when the most able of his subordinates, Mohammed Aly, together with about 1, of Gordon's best troops, were killed in an ambush while conducting a raid.

On 9 September , an armoured steamer, the Abbas on its way to Cairo was captured by the Ansar for the first time and all aboard were killed.

Bitterly Gordon wrote in his diary: Amongst the papers captured on the Abbas was the cipher key Gordon used to code his messages in and out of Khartoum, which meant he could no longer read the messages he received, leading him to write in his diary: Alone in a black continent, dauntless and unfaltering, he discharges his great trust, holding the capital of the Sudan against the beleaguering hordes".

By the end of , both the garrison and the population of Khartoum were starving to death; there were no horses, donkeys, cats, or dogs left in Khartoum as the people had eaten all of them.

The note read "Khartoum all right. Can hold out for years. Gordon", but the messenger who knew very little English had memorised another, darker message from Gordon, namely: I repeat to you the words of Allah, Do not destroy yourself.

Allah Himself is merciful to you". Gordon and the Mahdi never met, but the two men, both charismatic and intensely religious soldiers who saw themselves as fighting for God had developed a grudging mutual respect.

During November—December , Gordon's diary showed the stressful effects of the siege, as he was in a state of mental exhaustion, a man on the brink of madness.

At another point, a death-obsessed Gordon wrote in his diary: You will never hear from me again. I fear that there will be treachery in the garrison, and all will be over by Christmas.

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The double-deck A is the largest commercial aircraft flying today. On 9 September , an armoured steamer, the Abbas on its way to Cairo was captured by the Ansar for the first time and all aboard were killed.

Bitterly Gordon wrote in his diary: Amongst the papers captured on the Abbas was the cipher key Gordon used to code his messages in and out of Khartoum, which meant he could no longer read the messages he received, leading him to write in his diary: Alone in a black continent, dauntless and unfaltering, he discharges his great trust, holding the capital of the Sudan against the beleaguering hordes".

By the end of , both the garrison and the population of Khartoum were starving to death; there were no horses, donkeys, cats, or dogs left in Khartoum as the people had eaten all of them.

The note read "Khartoum all right. Can hold out for years. Gordon", but the messenger who knew very little English had memorised another, darker message from Gordon, namely: I repeat to you the words of Allah, Do not destroy yourself.

Allah Himself is merciful to you". Gordon and the Mahdi never met, but the two men, both charismatic and intensely religious soldiers who saw themselves as fighting for God had developed a grudging mutual respect.

During November—December , Gordon's diary showed the stressful effects of the siege, as he was in a state of mental exhaustion, a man on the brink of madness.

At another point, a death-obsessed Gordon wrote in his diary: You will never hear from me again.

I fear that there will be treachery in the garrison, and all will be over by Christmas. On 5 January , the Ansar took the fort at Omdurman, which allowed them to use their Krupp artillery to bring down enfilading fire on the defences of Khartoum.

A particular aspect of Gordon's personality that stood out was his death wish as everyone who knew him was convinced that he wanted to die.

The relief force consisted of two groups, a "flying column" of camel-borne troops from Wadi Halfa. The troops reached Korti towards the end of December, and arrived at Metemma on 20 January There they found four gunboats which had been sent north by Gordon four months earlier, and prepared them for the trip back up the Nile.

On 18 January , the advance guard of Wolseley's force under Herbert Stewart defeated the Ansar force sent to stop the relief force at the Battle of Abu Klea.

On 24 January two of the steamers, carrying 20 soldiers of the Sussex Regiment wearing red tunics to clearly identify them as British, were sent on a reconnaissance mission to Khartoum, with orders from Wolseley not to attempt to rescue Gordon or bring him ammunition or food.

The Ansar began their final attack by storming the city via the gap in the defence caused by the low Nile and after an hour's fighting, the starving defenders had abandoned the fight and the city was theirs.

Under heavy fire from Ansar warriors on the bank, the two steamers turned back up river. The British press criticised the relief force for arriving two days late, but it was later argued that the Mahdi's forces had good intelligence, and if the camel corps had advanced earlier, the final attack on Khartoum would also have come earlier.

Finally, the boats sent were not there to relieve Gordon, who was not expected to agree to abandon the city, and the small force and limited supplies on board could have offered scant military support for the besieged in any case.

The most popular account of Gordon's death was that he put on his ceremonial gold-braided blue uniform of the Governor-General together with the Pasha's red fez and that he went out unarmed, except with his rattan cane, to be cut down by the Ansar.

Gordon was apparently killed at the Governor-General's palace about an hour before dawn. The Mahdi had given strict orders to his three Khalifas not to kill Gordon.

Gordon's Sudanese servants later stated that Gordon for once did not go out armed only with his rattan cane, but also took with him a loaded revolver and his sword, and died in mortal combat fighting the Ansar.

Gordon died on the steps of a stairway in the northwestern corner of the palace, where he and his personal bodyguard, Agha Khalil Orphali, had been firing at the enemy.

Orphali was knocked unconscious and did not see Gordon die. When he woke up again that afternoon, he found Gordon's body covered with flies and the head cut off.

A merchant, Bordeini Bey, glimpsed Gordon standing on the palace steps in a white uniform looking into the darkness. The best evidence suggests that Gordon went out to confront the enemy, gunned down several of the Ansar with his revolver and after running out of bullets, drew his sword only to be shot down.

Reference is made to an account of the General surrendering his sword to a senior Mahdist officer, then being struck and subsequently speared in the side as he rolled down the staircase.

In the hours following Gordon's death an estimated 10, civilians and members of the garrison were killed in Khartoum. Many of Gordon's papers were saved and collected by his two sisters, Helen Clark Gordon, who married Gordon's medical colleague in China, Dr.

Queen Victoria sent him a telegram of rebuke which found its way into the press. Critics said Gladstone had neglected military affairs and had not acted promptly enough to save the besieged Gordon.

Critics inverted his acronym, "G. Gladstone told the Cabinet that the public cared much about Gordon and nothing about the Sudan, so he ordered Wolseley home after learning of Gordon's death.

In , Gordon achieved the martyrdom he had been seeking at Khartoum as the British press portrayed him as a saintly Christian hero and martyr who had died nobly resisting the Islamic onslaught of the Mahdi.

Scorn and reproach were cast upon us, and would we plead that it was undeserved? No; the conscience of the nation felt that a strain rested upon it".

Baring — who deeply disliked Gordon — wrote that because of the "national hysteria" caused by Gordon's death, saying anything critical about him at present would be equal to questioning Christianity.

In New York, Paris and Berlin, pictures of Gordon appeared in shop windows with black lining as all over the West the fallen general was seen as a Christ-like man who sacrificed himself resisting the advance of Islam.

Despite the popular demand to "avenge Gordon", the Conservative government that came into office after the election did nothing of the sort.

The Sudan was judged to be not worth the huge financial costs it would have taken to conquer it, the same conclusion that the Liberals had reached.

Emin Pasha , still holding out in Equatoria against the Ansar. Many have seen the attempt to save Emin Pasha, a German doctor-biologist-botanist who had converted from Judaism first to Lutheranism and then possibly to Islam, and who had not been particularly famous in Europe until then, as a consolation prize for Gordon.

Egypt had been in the French sphere of influence until when the British had occupied Egypt. In March a French force under the command of Jean-Baptiste Marchand left Dakar with the intention of marching across the Sahara with the aim of destroying the Mahdiyah state.

The French hoped that conquering the Sudan would allow them to lever the British out of Egypt, and thus restore Egypt to the French sphere of influence.

To block the French, a British force under Herbert Kitchener was sent to destroy the Mahdiyah state and annihilated the Ansar at the Battle of Omdurman in It was thus imperial rivalry with the French, not a desire to "avenge Gordon" that led the British to end the Mahdiyah state in As the Mahdi was long dead, Kitchener had to content himself with blowing up the Mahdi's tomb as revenge for Gordon.

News of Gordon's death led to an "unprecedented wave of public grief across Britain. Paul's Cathedral on 14 March.

Southampton , where Gordon had stayed with his sister, Augusta, in Rockstone Place before his departure to the Sudan, erected a memorial in Porter's Mead, now Queen's Park, near the town's docks.

The columns are surmounted by carved capitals supporting a cross. Around the base is an inscription referring to Gordon as a soldier, philanthropist and administrator and mentions those parts of the world in which he served, closing with a quotation from his last letter to his sisters: Gordon's memory, as well as his work in supervising the town's riverside fortifications, is commemorated in Gravesend ; the embankment of the Riverside Leisure Area is known as the Gordon Promenade, while Khartoum Place lies just to the south.

Located in the town centre of his birthplace of Woolwich is General Gordon Square, formerly known as General Gordon Place until a major urban landscaped area was developed and the road name changed.

In addition, one of the first Woolwich Free Ferry vessels was named Gordon in his memory. In a statue of General Gordon by Hamo Thornycroft was erected in Trafalgar Square , London , exactly halfway between the two fountains.

It was removed in In a House of Commons speech on 5 May , then opposition leader Winston Churchill spoke out in favour of the statue's return to its original location: Would not the right honorable Gentleman consider whether this statue [ General Gordon was a figure outside and above the ranks of military and naval commanders.

An identical statue by Thornycroft—but with the pedestal intact—is located in a small park called Gordon Reserve, near Parliament House in Melbourne , Australia.

It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in and then erected in Brompton Barracks, Chatham, the home of the Royal School of Military Engineering , where it still stands.

In it was moved to Khartoum, where it stood at the intersection of Gordon Avenue and Victoria Avenue, metres south of the new palace that had been built in It was removed in , shortly after the Sudan became independent.

This is the figure which, since April , stands at the Gordon's School in Woking. This was a very evangelical branch of CMS and was able to start work in Sudan in as soon as the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium took control after the fall of Khartoum in In the Presidential Palace in Khartoum built in , in the west wing on the ground floor, there was, at least until , a stone slab against the wall on the left side of the main corridor when coming from the main entrance with the text: Charlton Heston played Gordon in the epic film Khartoum , which deals with the siege of Khartoum.

Laurence Olivier played Muhammad Ahmad. For the six months after the British public learned of Gordon's death, newspapers and journals published hundreds of articles celebrating Gordon as a "saint".

Gordon's religious faith, his skill with native peoples, his fearlessness in the face of danger a recurrent motif is Gordon's habit of leading his troops into battle armed with no more than a rattan cane , his honor, his resourcefulness, his graciousness to subordinates, his impatience with cant and hypocrisy, his hatred of glory and honors, his dislike of lionization and social rewards, and on and on.

One begins to wonder whether the man had any faults at all". Such was the popularity of Gordon that the first critical book by a British author was not published until , when Baring — by this time raised to the peerage as Viscount Cromer — published his autobiography, which was notable as the first British book to portray Gordon in an unflattering manner, though Lord Cromer also tried to be fair and emphasised what he felt were Gordon's positive, as well as his negative, traits.

As a young man, Winston Churchill shared in the national consensus that Gordon was one of Britain's greatest heroes. After his conversation with Baring, Churchill wrote: He was so erratic, capricious, utterly unreliable, his mood changed so often, his temper was abominable, he was frequently drunk, and yet with all that he had a tremendous sense of honour and great abilities".

Many biographies have been written of Gordon, most of them of a highly hagiographic nature. The British Sinologist Demetrius Charles Boulger published a biography of Gordon in which depicted him as a staunch patriot and a Christian of immense virtue who displayed superhuman courage in the face of danger.

Strachey, a member of the Leftist Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals, depicted Gordon as a ludicrous figure, a bad-tempered, deranged egomaniac with a nasty habit of punching out Arabs whenever he was unhappy, and who led himself into disaster.

Long after his death and despite the popularity of Strachey's essay in Eminent Victorians , the appeal of the Gordon legend lived on.

In the 20th century, many British military leaders came to have a critical view of Gordon with Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery writing that Gordon was "unfit for independent command, mentally unbalanced, a fanatic, self-imposed martyr", adding that he should never been sent to the Sudan and the Gladstone-Gordon relationship was a case study in dysfunctional civil-military relations.

Nutting's book was noteworthy as the first book to argue that Gordon had a death wish. Nutting made the controversial claim that the basis of Gordon's death wish was that he was gay, noting that Gordon never married, is not known to had a relationship with any women, and often wished that he been born a eunuch, which strongly suggested that Gordon wished to have no sexual desires at all.

Nutting contended that the conflict between Gordon's devoutly held Christian ideals and his sexuality made Gordon deeply ashamed of himself and he attempted to expiate his wretched, sinful nature by seeking a glorious death in battle.

Urban argued that Gordon's final stand was "significant" because it was " Here was one man among men who did not do what he was told, but what he believed to be right.

In a world moving inexorably towards conformity, it would be well to remember Gordon of Khartoum.

In the People's Republic of China, the entire period between and is depicted as the " Century of Humiliation " — a time when racist, greedy and evil foreigners humiliated and rapaciously exploited the Chinese people.

Because many aspects of the Taiping ideology resembled Communism, the Taipings are treated sympathetically by Chinese historians who portrayed as them as prototypical Communists with Hong Xiuquan being depicted as anticipating Mao.

In this context, Gordon is vilified in China today as just another foreigner oppressing the Chinese people by crushing the Taiping rebellion.

No monuments to Gordon exist in China today, through the British journalist Rob Stallard noted that the modest Gordon would have no doubt wanted it that way.

In Sudan, the Mahdi, a self proclaimed religious messiah, is seen as a hero in the country's fight for independence, while Gordon is seen as the Mahdi's enemy, and the enemy of such efforts at large.

The Canadian historian C. Brad Faught wrote it was "no coincidence" that the Sudan, a place known as a hotbed of fundamentalist Islam produced both the Mahdi and the current regime of General Omar al-Bashir , which venerates the memory of the Mahdi and which for a time in the s sheltered Osama bin Laden.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other general officers named Gordon, see Gordon surname. In Stephen, Leslie ; Lee, Sidney.

Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 13 March Archived 3 February at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 July Accessed 3 September National Heritage List for England.

Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 6 March Tablet indicates where General Gordon was killed, Jan.

Journal of the Royal African Society. The Ultimate Imperial Adventure. Charles George Gordon—A Sketch. Living in the Signs of the Times.

Butler, Daniel Allen Khartoum, and the Dawn of Militant Islam. Chenevix Trench, Charles Cleveland, William; Bunton, Martin A History of the Middle East.

European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: The Cambridge History of Africa. Galbraith, John June The Scramble for Africa, ".

Cassell's history of the war in the Soudan. Goldschmidt, Arthur; Davidson, Lawrence A Concise History of the Middle East. Hsu, Immanuel May Karsh, Efraim; Karsh, Inari Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East, — Twentieth Century British History.

Gordon and the Mahdi. Europe in Africa in the Nineteenth Century 4th ed. Retrieved 4 September Apotheosis of General Gordon.

Reader's Guide to Military History. General Gordon and the Fall of Kartum". South African Military History Society. A Prisoner of the Khaleefa.

The Scramble for Africa — Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom: Fire and Sword in the Sudan. Eminent Victorians Illustrated ed.

Taylor, Miles October Gateway to the British Empire. Tappe, Eric June The Slavonic and East European Review. Administration in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Gordon, Charles George Churchill, Winston, Sir Hill, George Birkbeck Colonel Gordon in Central Africa, —

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